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Helminthic Therapy in Science

This document contains a comprehensive collection of links to the most important scientific papers and studies relating to helminthic therapy.

Reading Packet

The idea of the reading packet is to prepare a group of papers and studies that could be presented to a doctor, to quickly acquaint them with the theory of helminths and some of the results that have been achieved. Perhaps 4 or 5 papers. Read more...

Research centers that are currently engaged in major helminth research

  • Cambridge University (United Kingdom)
  • The University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)
  • The University of Iowa (USA)
  • Fleny Institute (Argentina)
  • London School of Medicine (United Kingdom)
  • The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  • Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)
  • The University of Antwerp (Belgium)

Studies are arranged by topic, with most recent studies first.

Helminth-Related Immune Theory and Helminthic Therapy

Note Transcriptional regulation of Th2 cell differentiation
Jinfang Zhu
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bldg 10, Rm 11N323, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunology and Cell Biology (2010) 88, 244–249; doi:10.1038/icb.2009.114; published online 12 January 2010

CD4 T helper (Th) cells have critical functions in regulating adaptive immune responses. Mossman and Coffman1 first recognized the existence of Th1 and Th2 cells. Although Th1 cells are critical for cell-mediated immunity, Th2 cells are involved in humoral immune responses.2,3 Now, it is known that naıve CD4 T cells have at least four distinct fates, Th1, Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells, to choose from when they receive signals triggered by antigens and cytokines.

CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells are important for immune responses against extracellular parasites and involved in the development of asthma and other allergic diseases. By secreting a variety of signature cytokines, Th2 cells help B cells to make IgE5 (through interleukin (IL)-4), induce alternative macrophage activation6 (through IL-4/IL-13), recruit eosinophils7 (through IL-5), activate mast cells (through IL-98) and act on epithelial cells (through IL-9,9 IL-1310–12 and amphiregulin13). Th2 cells also produce IL-10, IL-21 and IL-25, which are also involved in regulating the magnitude of Th2 responses.

Note Worms to the Rescue: Can Worm Glycans Protect from Autoimmune Diseases? (Literature Review)
Loes M. Kuijk and Irma van Die
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

IUBMB Life, 62(4): 303–312, April 2010

Note The hygiene hypothesis for autoimmune and allergic diseases
H. Okada, C. Kuhn, H. Feillet and J.-F. Bach INSERM U1013, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

Accepted for publication 21 January 2010

According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a highincidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders.

Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases.

Note Helminth immunoregulation: The role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity -- Note Note: Due to copyright the file Helminth_immunoregulation_-_the_role_of_parasite_secreted_proteins_in_modulating_host_immunity.pdf is only available here [1].
James P. Hewitson, John R. Grainger, and Rick M. Maizels Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research,
University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK

Published as: Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009 September ; 167(1-9): 1–11

Helminths are masterful immunoregulators. A characteristic feature of helminth infection is a Th2-dominated immune response, but stimulation of immunoregulatory cell populations, such as regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages, is equally common. Typically, Th1/17 immunity is blocked and productive effector responses are muted, allowing survival of the parasite in a “modified Th2” environment. Drug treatment to clear the worms reverses the immunoregulatory effects, indicating that a state of active suppression is maintained by the parasite. Hence, research has focussed on “excretory–secretory” products released by live parasites, which can interfere with every aspect of host immunity from initial recognition to end-stage effector mechanisms. In this review, we survey our knowledge of helminth secreted molecules, and summarise current understanding of the growing number of individual helminth mediators that have been shown to target key receptors or pathways in the mammalian immune system.

Note Can parasites be good for you?
David Pritchard, University of Nottingham
August 2009 The Biochemical Society
A short description of pioneering studies in Helminth Therapy at the University of Nottingham. The author is currently engaged in a larger three year study targeted at MS.

Note Chronic Intestinal Helminth Infections Are Associated with Immune Hyporesponsiveness and Induction of a Regulatory Network
Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo, Mauricio L. Barreto, Laura C. Rodrigues, Philip J. Cooper, Nívea Bispo Silva, Leila D. Amorim, and Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves

INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, July 2010, p. 3160–3167 Vol. 78, No. 7

Helminth infections have been associated with protection against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We investigated the effects of chronic infections with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (measured twice over a 5-year period) on cytokine and antibody responses. We collected blood from 1,060 children aged 4 to 11 years living in a poor urban area of Brazil and measured Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (interleukin-5 [IL-5] and IL-13) cytokines and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in unstimulated and stimulated (with mitogen or A. lumbricoides antigens) cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes and levels of total IgE and anti-A. lumbricoides IgG4 and IgE in serum. Intestinal helminth infections were associated with an increased proportion of children producing IL-5 in response to A. lumbricoides and producing IL-10 spontaneously, especially among coinfected and chronically infected children. Helminth infections were associated with a generalized suppression of cytokine responses to mitogen. Levels of total IgE and anti-A. lumbricoides IgG4 and IgE were especially elevated in chronically infected children. In conclusion, intestinal helminth infections were associated with a typical Th2 immune response profile and with the induction of immune hyporesponsiveness that was associated with greater frequencies of the production of spontaneous IL-10.

Note Can helminths or helminth-derived products be used in humans to prevent or treat allergic diseases?
Klaus J. Erb
Department of Pulmonary Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach a.d. Riss, 88440, Germany
Trends in Immunology Vol.30 No.2, 2008
A literature review and editorial on the possibilities and efficacy of helminthic therapy.

Note The therapeutic helminth?
Derek M. McKay
Gastrointestinal Research Group
Department of Physiology and Biophysics
The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunology, University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta, CanadaTrends in Parasitology Vol.25 No.3 (2009)

The paper is an editorial, which reviews the justification and theory of helminthic therapies and the existing studies. The author engages in some speculation about using helminths to transfer other molecules or species for therapeutic ends.

Note Helminths and the IBD Hygiene Hypothesis
Joel V. Weinstock, MD, and David E. Elliott, MD. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009;15:128 –133

Helminths are parasitic animals that have evolved over 100,000,000 years to live in the intestinal track or other locations of their hosts. Colonization of humans with these organisms was nearly universal until the early 20th century. More than 1,000,000,000 people in less developed countries carry helminths even today. Helminths must quell their host’s immune system to successfully colonize. It is likely that helminths sense hostile changes in the local host environment and take action to control such responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) probably results from an inappropriately vigorous immune response to contents of the intestinal lumen. Environmental factors strongly affect the risk for IBD. People living in less developed countries are protected from IBD. The “IBD hygiene hypothesis” states that raising children in extremely hygienic environments negatively affects immune development, which predisposes them to immunological diseases like IBD later in life. Modern day absence of exposure to intestinal helminths appears to be an important environmental factor contributing to development of these illnesses. Helminths interact with both host innate and adoptive immunity to stimulate immune regulatory circuitry and to dampen effector pathways that drive aberrant inflammation. The first prototype worm therapies directed against immunological diseases are now under study in the United States and various countries around the world. Additional studies are in the advanced planning stage.

Note Dose-Ranging_Study For Trials Of Therapeutic Infection With Necator Americanus In Humans
Division of Respiratory Medicine, and Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, City Hospital, Nottingham, United Kingdom
School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75(5), 2006, pp. 914–920 Copyright © 2006 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Note Gastrointestinal Parasites, Potential Therapy for Refractory Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Tom G. Moreels, MD, PhD, and Paul A. Pelckmans, MD, PhD
Inflammatory Bowel Disease • Volume 11, Number 2, February 2005

Focused on the gut and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), this paper includes a detailed explanation of the gut's immune system. Includes some speculation on how helminths may affect the gut, and reviews the helminth studies as of 2005.

Note Allergy Controls the Population Density of Necator americanus in the Small Intestine
The Department of Gastroenterology, The Townsville Hospital, Townsville; and ‡the School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

The author used capsule endoscopy to study the lifecycles of hookworm in the gut. In a finding that has some bearing on helminthic therapy, he concludes that human hosts become allergic to hookworm, and limit the scope of infection, which leads to a balance in the gut.

GASTROENTEROLOGY 2006;131:402–409

Note Helminths and our immune system: Friend or foe? -- Note Note: Due to copyright the file Helminths_Friend_or_foe.pdf is only available here [2]
Helena Helmby
Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, WC1E 7HT London
United Kingdom

A review of the current medical literature on helminthic therapy in humans, and in animal models (principally mice).

Note Can Worms Tame the Immune System?
Ingrid Wickelgren SCIENCE VOL 305 9 JULY 2004

Note Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242; and the
2Immunology Disease Resistance Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705

American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology • VOL 284 • MARCH 2003 •

Note Immunomodulators of Helminthes: Promising Therapeutics for Autoimmune Disorders and Allergic Diseases
M V R Reddy
Department of Biochemistry & JB Tropical Disease Research Centre,
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram- 442102, India
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2010 / 25 (2)

Note Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: Immunity against helminths and immunological phenomena in modern human populations: coevolutionary legacies?

Joseph A. Jackson,1,2 Ida M. Friberg1, Susan Little1 and Janette E. Bradley1
1 School of Biology, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham
2 School of Biological Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

The patterns seen in the control of helminth immunity are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. Whilst an inability to correctly regulate the immune system in the absence of helminth infection might seem highly counter-adaptive, the very ancient and pervasive relationship between vertebrates and helminths supports a view that immunological control networks have been selected to function within the context of a modified Th2 environment. The absence of immunoregulatory stimuli from helminths may therefore uncover maladaptations that were not previously exposed to selection.

Note Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection
V. Wright and Q. Bickle
Dr Quentin Bickle, Immunology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
2005 British Society for Immunology, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 142: 398–403

Eosinophil counts peaked early during both infections but remained elevated (#18%) throughout. Transient production of IL-5, IL-13 and APP also followed infection but there were negligible levels of IFN-! or IL-10. The onset of nausea, oedema and the initial rise in CRP, 1-AT, eosinophilia and IL-5 coincided (days 13–27) with the late larval migration and early establishment of the preadult worms in the intestine. Apart from the eosinophilia these responses declined to baseline levels within 4 months and were less pronounced on re-infection.

Note Review article: helminths as therapeutic agents for inflammatory bowel disease
M. M. HUNTER & D. M. McKAY. Intestinal Disease Research Programme, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Accepted for publication 5 October 2003

Over the last decade major advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms and mediators of inflammation that hold the promise of the development of new therapies for inflammatory disease. While much is to be gleaned from the application of new technologies, assessment of the age-old host–parasite relationship may also provide insights on how to counter pathological inflammatory events. In the case of inflammatory bowel disease [particularly Crohn’s disease, which is associated with T helper 1 (Th1) events] it is proposed that infection with parasitic helminths would be beneficial: the paradigm being that of immune deviation, where Th2 cytokines mobilized in response to the helminth will prevent or antagonize the disease promoting Th1 events in the gut. The situation is unlikely to be this simple. Here we review and critique the data in support of helminth therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, drawing attention to the gaps in knowledge and presenting a view on how the field may be advanced. While the concept of helminth therapy may be superficially unappealing, this review may convince the reader of the value of more extensive analyses of the impact of helminth infection on enteric inflammation.

Whipworm-Based Helminthic Therapy

Note A time course study of immunological responses in Trichuris suis infected pigs demonstrates induction of a local type 2 response associated with worm burden -- Note Note: Due to copyright the file A_time_course_study.pdf is only available here [3]

Helene Kringel a,*, Tine Iburg b, Harry Dawson d, Bent Aasted c, Allan Roepstorff a
a Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlægevej 100, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
b Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlægevej 100, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
b Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
c Section of Immunology, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
d ARS, USDA, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA Received 19 January 2006; received in revised form 4 April 2006; accepted 7 April 2006

Note IL-22+ CD4+ T Cells Are Associated with Therapeutic Trichuris trichiura Infection in an Ulcerative Colitis Patient

Latest case with Crohn's and Trichuris Trichiura.

Celiac Disease

Inoculating Celiac Disease Patients With the Human Hookworm Necator Americanus: Evaluating Immunity and Gluten-Sensitivity
May, 2008

Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis

Note Prebiotics, Probiotics and Helminths:The ‘Natural’ Solution? (literature review and editorial)
Francisco Guarner
Digestive System Research Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona , Spain
Dig Dis 2009;27:412–417

Note Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of IBD
Nicholas A. Braus1 and David E. Elliott, MD, PhD2 1 Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship Program Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 2 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A.Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA and VAMC, Iowa City, IA

Clin Immunol. 2009 July

Note Worms and the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Are Molecules the Answer? (literature review)
Nathalie E. Ruyssers,1 Benedicte Y. DeWinter,1 Joris G. DeMan,1 Alex Loukas,2 Arnold G. Herman,3 Paul A. Pelckmans,1 and Tom G. Moreels1, 4
1 Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QL 4029, Australia
3 Laboratory of Pharmacology, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium

Clinical and Developmental Immunology, Volume 2008, Article ID 567314, 7 pages, doi:10.1155/2008/567314

Note Trichuris suis Therapy for Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial (study report - no date)
Robert W. Summers, M.D., David E. Elliott, M.D., Ph.D., Joseph F. Urban, Jr. Ph.D., Robin A. Thompson, M.H.A., Joel V. Weinstock, M.D.
James A. Clifton Center for Digestive Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Summers, Elliott, and Weinstock and Ms. Thompson)
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa and Nutrient Requirements & Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (Dr. Urban)
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Bldg 307 Room 202 BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland

Note A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn’s patients and reservoir donors.pdf

J Croese1,J O’Neil, J Masson,. S Cooke, W Melrose, D Pritchard, R Speare
Gut 2006;55:136-137 doi:10.1136/gut.2005.079129.

Note Will worms really cure Crohn’s disease (Editorial Review)
G L Radford-Smith
Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Herston, Australia
The author reviews the promise of helminthic therapy and sounds notes of warning about the possibly serious consequences resulting from coinfection with Campylobacter, S mansoni or Toxoplasma gondii, prior to the start of helminthic therapy.

Gut 2005;54:6–8.

Parasitic worms may offer effective treatment for Crohn's disease - Newsday article

Note Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease
R W Summers, D E Elliott, J F Urban Jr., R Thompson, J V Weinstock
Gut 2005; 54: 87-90.

Note Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn’s disease?

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA; and
2 The Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA

The FASEB Journal Vol. 14 September 2000

A sales brochure from the German company Ovamed GmbH, a provider of helminth eggs ( Trichuris suis )for therapy.

Note Infection with a Helminth Parasite Prevents Experimental Colitis via a Macrophage-Mediated Mechanism1
Philip Smith,* Niamh E. Mangan,* Caitriona M. Walsh,* Rosie E. Fallon,* Andrew N. J. McKenzie,† Nico van Rooijen,‡ and Padraic G. Fallon2*
(*)Institute of Molecular Medicine, St. James’s Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
†Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
‡Vrije Univeriteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J. Immunol. 2007;178;4557-4566

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Can Parasitic Hookworms Help In Treatment Of Multiple Sclerosis?
WIRMS (Worms for Immune Regulation in MS) Three year, (UK pounds) 400,000, placebo controlled, phase 2 study in people with relapsing remitting MS, authors Professor Cris Constantinescu and Professor David Pritchard.
(currently ongoing)

Note Association Between Parasite Infection and Immune Responses in Multiple Sclerosis
Jorge Correale, MD, and Mauricio Farez, MD
Annals of Neurology Vol 61 No 2 February 2007

A small group (12) of MS patients serendipitously infected with a variety of helminths was followed for 4.6 years, as well as similar control group with MS. Parasite-infected MS patients showed a significantly lower number of exacerbations, minimal variation in disability scores, as well as fewer magnetic resonance imaging changes when compared with uninfected MS patients.

Note Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization
Diane Sewell1, Zhu Qing1, Emily Reinke1, David Elliot2, Joel Weinstock2, Matyas Sandor1 and Zsuzsa Fabry1
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

International Immunology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 59±69 2003, The Japanese Society for Immunology

Jorge Correale, Mauricio F. Farez

Department of Neurology, Institute for Neurological Research Dr. Raúl Carrea, FLENI, Montañeses 2325, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina

The impact of parasite infections on the course of multiple sclerosis

Previously, we demonstrated that helminth-infected MS patients showed significantly lower number of relapses, reduced disability scores, and lower MRI activity compared to uninfected MS subjects. In the current study, 12 patients with diagnosis of relapsing remitting MS presenting parasite infections were prospectively followed during 90 months; due to exacerbation of helminth-infection symptoms after 63 months of follow- up, 4 patients received anti-parasite treatment. Helminth-infection control was associated with significant increase in clinical and radiological MS activities. Moreover, these patients showed significant increase in the number of IFN-γ and IL-12 producing cells, and a fall in the number of TGF-β and IL-10 secreting cells, as well as CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells evident 3 months after anti-helminth treatment began. These new observations on parasite infections associated to MS indicate that parasite regulation of host immunity can alter the course of MS.

Asthma, Allergies & General Immune Response

Note Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis
Peter Bager, PhD,a John Arnved, MD,b   Steen Rønborg, PhD,b  Jan Wohlfahrt, PhD,a  Lars K. Poulsen, PhD, c  Tine Westergaard, PhD,a  Henning Willads Petersen, PharmD,d  Bjarne Kristensen, MSc,g Stig Thamsborg, PhD,e
Allan Roepstorff, PhD,e  Christian Kapel, PhD,f and Mads Melbye, DMSca Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, and Allerød, Denmark

a The Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Copenhagen
b The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen;
c The Allergy Clinic, National, University Hospital, Copenhagen; d Pharmacy Services
e The Department of Veterinary Disease Biology; f the Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg
g Phadia ApS, Allerød.


Note Responses by Induction of Reduces Allergic and Inflammatory A Helminth Immunomodulator IL-10-Producing Macrophages
Corinna Schnoeller, Sebastian Rausch, Smitha Pillai, Angela Avagyan, Bianca M. Wittig, Christoph Loddenkemper, Alf Hamann, Eckard Hamelmann, Richard Lucius and Susanne Hartmann
J. Immunol. 2008;180;4265-4272

The coincidence between infections with parasitic worms and the reduced prevalence of allergic disease in humans and in animal models has prompted the search for helminth molecules with antiallergic and antiinflammatory potential. We report herein that filarial cystatin, a secreted protease inhibitor of filarial nematodes, suppresses Th2-related inflammation and the ensuing asthmatic disease in a murine model of OVA-induced allergic airway responsiveness. Treatment with recombinant filarial cystatin inhibited eosinophil recruitment, reduced levels of OVA-specific and total IgE, down-regulated IL-4 production, and suppressed allergic airway hyperreactivity when applied during or after sensitization and before challenge with the allergen. Data demonstrate that treatment with a single helminth protein can exert the antiallergic effects of helminth infections.

Note Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation -- Note Note: Due to copyright the file Helminths_as_Governors.pdf is only available here [4]
David E. Elliott a,*, Robert W. Summers a, Joel V. Weinstock b
a Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242-1009, USA
b Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
International Journal for Parasitology 37 (2007) 457–464

Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections
Alex Loukas, and Paul Prociv
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4006,1 and
Australian Center for International Tropical Health and Nutrition,2 and Department of Microbiology and Parasitology,3 The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia

Note Do helminth parasites protect against atopy and allergic disease?

Note Can intestinal helminth infections (geohelminths) affect the development and expression of asthma and allergic disease?
P. J. COOPER Department of Infectious Diseases, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK and Laboratorio de Investigación, Hospital Pedro Vicente Maldonado, Pichincha Province, Ecuador

Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 128:398–404, 2002

Note A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-{gamma} Production

George C F Hsieh, Alex Loukas, Alison M Wahl, Monica Bhatia, Yan Wang, Angela L. Williamson, Kylene W. Kehn, Haruhiko Maruyama, Peter J. Hotez, David Leitenberg, Jeff Bethony and Stephanie L.Constant. Departments of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, and Immunology, and Pediatrics, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037; Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia; and Department of Molecular Parasitology, Nagoya City University Medical School, Nagoya, Japan

J. Immunol. 2004;173;2699-2704

Note Allergy Controls the Population Density of Necator americanus in the Small Intestine
The Department of Gastroenterology, The Townsville Hospital, Townsville; and ‡the School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

GASTROENTEROLOGY 2006;131:402–409

Note An Enteric Helminth Infection Protects Against an Allergic Response to Dietary Antigen
Mohamed Elfatih H. Bashir*, Peter Andersen, Ivan J. Fuss, Hai Ning Shi and Cathryn Nagler-Anderson2, Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129; and Mucosal Immunity Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892

Note Autism, Asthma, Inflammation, and the Hygiene Hypothesis
Kevin G. Becker
Gene Expression and Genomics Unit, RRB, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224
Med Hypotheses. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2007 November 1.

Note Independent effects of intestinal parasite infection and domestic allergen exposure on risk of wheeze in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study
Sarah Scrivener, Haile Yemaneberhan, Mehila Zebenigus, Daniel Tilahun, Samuel Girma, Seid Ali, Paul McElroy, Adnan Custovic, Ashley Woodcock, David Pritchard, Andrea Venn, John Britton
THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 1493

Note The hygiene hypothesis and atopy: Bring back the parasites
Literature Review and Editorial
Dirk M. Elston, MD, Danville, Pennsylvania Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2006;54:172-9.


Note A Review of Autism and the Immune Response
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department of Internal Medicine
University of California
Davis, CA 95616, USA

A discussion of the immune system's possible role in Autism Spectrum Disorder.


Note Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice
Anne Cooke 1, Paul Tonks 1, Francis M. Jones 2, Helen O'Shea1, Patricia Hetchings1, Anthony J.C. Fulford 2 , D.W.Dunne 2

1 Division of Immunology, 2 Division of Microbiology and Parasitology,
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB21QP, UK

Parasite Immunology Volume 21, Number 4, pp169-176 April 1999

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